- Product Brief:Mineral & Metals Agents
- Brand Name: COAL
- Minimum Order Quantity: Negotiable
- Shipping Method: n/a
- Product Description:
Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were preserved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation, thus sequestering atmospheric carbon.
Coal is a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to create. The energy in coal comes from the energy stored by plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago, when the earth was partly covered with swampy forests. For millions of years, a layer of dead plants at the bottom of the swamps was covered by layers of water and dirt, trapping the energy of the dead plants. The heat and pressure from the top layers helped the plant remains turn into what we today call coal.
Type of Coal
Coal is classified into five main types, depending on the amounts and types of carbon it contains and on the amount of heat energy it can produce. The rank of a deposit of coal depends on the pressure and heat acting on the plant debris as it sank deeper and deeper over millions of years. For the most part, the higher ranks of coal contain more heat-producing energy.
Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter, containing 50-60 percent carbon with high oxygen and moisture level. It can be used as an energy source.
Lignite contains 60-75 percent carbon with high moisture level of 30-70 percent. Lignite is mainly burned to dry tobacco and to generate electricity.
Sub bituminous takes longer than lignite to form itself, with higher carbon and 25-30 percent of moisture level. Sub bituminous coal can be burned to generate electricity and can be employed in industrial plants.
Bituminous coal has two to three times the heating value of lignite. It was formed under high heat and pressure, and compressed into a dense brown or black substance. Bituminous coal is used to generate electricity and is an important fuel and raw material for the steel and iron industries.
Anthracite is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. It contains 90-98 percent carbon, with low moisture level of 2-5 percent. Anthracite has a high heating value but ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue, and smokeless flame.
For hundreds of years, coal has been commonly used due to its large quantities spreading all over the world. The production of coal is uncomplicated and inexpensive, so it is a source of fuel in many industries, including electricity, metal smelting, cement, tobacco drying, food production, and any industries that have heating pot in their procedures. Besides, coal can be processed and turn into activated carbon, of which property is to get rid of unwanted odor. Coal can also be synthesized to carbon fiber to produce durable but light material for hang gliders, golf clubs, badminton rackets, tennis rackets, etc.
Coal can also be converted to liquid fuels (coal liquefaction) or to gas fuels (coal gasification), which can be cleaned up relatively easily, with less pollution. In addition, gas or other substances disposed of this procedure can be changed to sulfuric acid, gypsum, and ammonia.
Mining and Productions
Pands Group’s next step is to import coal and modify its physical and heating property, in line with each factory’s boiler. Nowadays, many factories have to lower their capital by replacing other fuels with coal, which is considered inexpensive source of energy.
Pands Group has been in the mining industry for over forty years. We are an expertise in ore dressing and offer a variety of services, which will support every need of clients, including with jetty, storehouse, and logistics service, situated at Ampur Nakhornluang, Ayutthaya Province, a convenient location for products’ distribution. We hold fast to the SSHE standard (Safety Security Health Environmental) and are certified with ISO 14001-2004 | 9001-2000.
In 2008, Pands Nakhornluang and Pands Group Logistics, in cooperation with Lucky Global Co., Ltd., will import coal from overseas. The products’ heating power will be heightened before the distribution to clients. Moreover, such environmental process as the physical cleaning is included to lower the smoke and dust emitted from coal burning. The coal we sell has the heating value of 5,300-6,300 kcal/kg.
To avoid pollution, Pands Group and Lucky Global only select coals with high quality and low sulfur, and take them through physical cleaning (to eliminate unwanted substances, such as dust, soil, stone, and pyritic sulfur from the ores). This coal preparation or so-called coal upgrading will help reduce ashes and sulfur amount and increase the heating value. It is considered as an environmental-friendly, effective, and cheap way to manage the material. Besides, the tailing can be further used as activated carbon to absorb odor, carbon fiber, cooking coal, coal liquefaction, or coal gasification. There are also other by-products, such as sulfuric acid, gypsum, and ammonia.
ASH is the remaining from coal burning. The good-quality coal will produce less ash.
CALORIFIC VALUE or HEATING VALUE is the amount of heat produced by combustion of a unit quantity of a fuel. Common units used for heating value are Kcal/Kg, KJ/Kg, Btu/Lb, etc.
FIXED CARBON is the solid combustible residue that remains after a coal particle is heated and the volatile matter is expelled.
MOISTURE in coal can be categorized in three types:
Free Moisture is on the surface of coal, lessening its burning property as the coal will stick to the container.
Inherent Moisture is in the content of coal and can be used as a way to rank the coal.
Total Moisture is an addition of the free moisture and inherent moisture. The total moisture affects coal’s heating value, and has to be identified as the coal is sold. High total moisture – low heating value / Low total moisture – high heating value
SULFUR is the chemical element, combined in coal ores. After burning, sulfur, together with oxygen, will form the toxic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Such high-quality coals as anthracite and bituminous contain low sulfur.
BITUMINOUS contains low-to-medium sulfur. Sub bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite are the environmental-friendly coals, since they contain lower sulfur than common fuel oil, while lignite and peat have high sulfur.
VOLATILE MATTER is material that is driven off when coal is heated to 950? C (1,742? F) in the absence of air under specified conditions. Consisting of a mixture of gases, low-boiling-point organic compounds that condense into oils upon cooling, and tars, volatile matter increases with decreasing rank. In general, coals with high volatile matter content ignite easily and are highly reactive in combustion applications.
Mining and productio
COAL SPEC PRODUCTION (tons/y) PRODUCTS (size)
5,300 Kcal/Kg YEAR 2008 200,000 tons 0 - 3 MM
5,500 Kcal/Kg YEAR 2009 500,000 tons 0 - 5 MM
5,800 Kcal/Kg YEAR 2010 600,000 tons 0 - 50 MM
6,300 Kcal/Kg YEAR 2011 650,000 tons 5 - 10 MM
YEAR 2012 10 - 25 MM
YEAR 2013 25 - 50 MM
YEAR 2014 50 - 75 MM
- Place of Origin: Thailand
- Delivery Time:3 Days
- Product Description: